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Brave New World

What is Brave New World? Why is it important? Brave New World is a dystopian novel written by Aldous Huxley and published in 1932. What is a dystopian novel? The word dystopia comes from the word utopia. This, from the Greek οὐ -τόπος, means place that doesn’t exist, or that cannot exist. The concept of …

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James Joyce

Who was Joyce? What did he write? Life James Joyce was an Irish author, born in Dublin in 1882. His father changed and lost a series of jobs, so the family lived in worse and worse conditions over the years. In 1888 he was sent to a Jesuit college. In this time of his life, …

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Joseph Conrad

Who was Conrad? What did he write? Joseph Conrad was a Polish author, who lived between 1857 and 1924. Life He was born in Polish Ukraine, but he and his family were exiled in Northern Russia after his father participated in a movement for Polish independence. His parents died when he was young; when he …

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Figures of speech

What are rhetorical figures? How are they used? A figure of speech, or rhetorical figure, is a way of using language in a way that is different from the ordinary, to produce certain effects. We can distinguish three groups of rhetorical figures: Figures of sound Figures based on construction Figures based on a change in …

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Charles Dickens

Who was Charles Dickens? What are his main works? Charles Dickens was an English author, who wrote historical novels and romances. Life Dickens was born in 1812. During his early education he read works by Fielding and Defoe, who were important for his future works. In 1823 his family moved to the suburbs of London. …

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William Shakespeare

Who is William Shakespeare? What can we say about his plays? Life William Shakespeare is probably the most famous English playwriter. Even though he is so well known, we know very little about his life, because the written sources are very scarce. We know he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon, in England, in 1564, from a …

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Daniel Defoe

Who is Daniel Defoe? Why are his works important? Realistic novel Daniel Defoe was an English writer, he is considered the first author of realistic novels. The realistic novel is a peculiar type of modern novel, which is a narrative genre that developed through the 16th century. When talking about novel, we refer to a …

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Paradise Lost

What is Paradise Lost? Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse written by John Milton in 1667 and it concerns the biblical story of the fall of man, especially the role of Satan in it. The poem was considered controversial at the time because of how the role of Satan is displayed. Milton …

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William Wordsworth

Who is William Wordsworth? William Wordsworth is an English poet who lived between the 18th and 19th century. He is considered to be the founder of Romanticism along with Coleridge; together they wrote a collection of poems called “The Lyrical Ballads” to found the movement. The movement The movement of Romanticism was mainly focused on: …

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A Modest Proposal

What is “A Modest Proposal”? “A Modest Proposal” is a satirical essay written by Jonathan Swift in 1729 which mocked the British policies towards Ireland and poor people, arising shock and scandal when published. Themes The proposal referred to in the title basically implies that in order to make poor irish colonies wealthy, they had …

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